• The Centre has said its decision to increase the procurement of onions for the buffer stock and simultaneous sales at subsidized rates has helped contain all India average price below ₹ 60/kg.
  • Otherwise, it could have touched ₹ 100/kg this year due to a production shortfall. The statement comes amidst farmers’ protest in Maharashtra against export ban of onion.
  • India is the second largest onion growing country in the world. Indian onions are famous for their pungency and are available round the year. Indian onions have two crop cycles, first harvesting starts in November to January and the second harvesting from January to May.
  • The onion is a hardy cool-season biennial but usually grown as an annual crop. The onion has narrow, hollow leaves and a base which enlarges to form a bulb. The bulb can be white, yellow, or red and require 80 to 150 days to reach harvest.
  • The major Onion producing states are Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand and Telangana in the country.
  • Onions can be grown on all types of soil such as sandy loam, silt loam and heavy clay soils. However, deep, friable, highly fertile sandy loam to clay soil rich in humus is considered as ideal. Sandy soil needs frequent irrigation and favors early maturity.
  • Whereas heavy soils restrict the development of bulbs, and the crop matures late as compared to light soils. A pH range between 5.8-6.5 is considered as optimum. Good drainage is essential as water-logging results in total failure of the crop.
  • The Major Onion producing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Telangana. Maharashtra ranks first in Onion production with a share of 42.53% followed by Madhya Pradesh with a share of 15.16% in 2021-22 (3rd Advance Estimate).
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